Vehicle detection sensors are crucial for civilian and military uses, including highway traffic surveillance, management, and urban traffic planning. Numerous vehicle detection methods have been proposed to achieve reliable traffic data to develop intelligent traffic systems. Vehicle detectors can sense the presence of cars and send an output signal to turn on the controller, such as a gate or door operator. When employed as a safety measure, these detectors can prohibit a gate or door from closing on a vehicle upon detection. An essential function of Intelligent Transportation Systems is reliable and effective vehicle detection in monocular vision.
Best Vehicle Detection Sensors
Sensors used for detection and surveillance of vehicle is described as having three main components:
- Transducers: detects the presence or passage of a vehicle
- Signal processing device: coverts output from the transducer into an electrical signal
- Data processing device: converts electrical signals into traffic parameters like count speed etc.
1: Magnetometer sensor:
A magnetometer detects large ferrous objects (such as a truck, car, or train) utilizing passive sensing technology by observing changes in the surroundings of a magnetic field. The sensor notices changes when a vehicle changes that magnetic field. Magnetometer range depends upon the target. There are two types of magnetic sensors; passive and active. The active type of magnet is called a magnetometer. It resembles the inductive loop detector except that it has a coil wrapped around a magnetic core. It works by measuring the disturbance in a magnetic field occurring by vehicle passage. This sensor can detect the presence of a vehicle as well as its passage. The passive type of detector measures the change in the Earth’s magnetic field flux due to vehicle passage. The passive type of detector simply measures a change in the flux of the earth’s magnetic field caused by the passage of a vehicle. They can be used to monitor many lanes of traffic because they have a reasonably wide detection range.
2: Video image processor:
A video image processor (VIP) takes data from an imaging sensor and extracts the desired information from it. An infrared or traditional TV camera can serve as this imaging sensor. Speed, occupancy, count, and vehicle presence can all be detected by a VIP. A VIP has the ability to give a variety of traffic information, including incident detection and vehicle classification because it creates an image of many lanes. license plate recognition
3: Optical sensor Infrared:
Although optical sensors are less frequently employed for vehicle detection than other technologies, they can nevertheless be a useful choice in particular situations. In order to detect things, an opposing mode optical sensor makes use of an interrupted light beam between an emitter and a receiver. For instance, a car passing between the transmitter and receiver can cause the light beam to be broken. Using this technique, it is possible to determine whether a car has entirely left a car wash.
4: Measuring light grid:
To initiate and terminate a transaction, vehicle detection frequently uses measuring light grids (e.g., paying a toll at a tollbooth). On either side of a toll lane, a sender and a receiver are positioned to stretch an array of light beams across the lane. Data from each beam can be utilized to accurately identify a vehicle’s class and the number of axles entering the detection region.
5: Radar sensors:
For outdoor long-range applications, radar sensors are perfect because these sensors are not impacted by environmental factors, including wind, rain, fog, light, humidity, or air temperature. Radar sensors can identify both moving and stationary vehicles, in contrast to inductive and capacitive sensors, which can only detect moving targets.
6: Ultrasonic sensor:
A wireless ultrasonic sensor is ideal for applications requiring indoor or covered parking. An ultrasonic sensor, which uses sound waves to detect objects, can be installed directly into the ceiling of a parking garage to detect car presence in the space below it. Any object, regardless of reflective angle, size, or shape, that passes between the sensor face and the distinct point (the ground) will be detected by the sensor.
7: Loop detectors:
The most widely used vehicle detection sensor is the loop detector. One or more wire loops implanted in the pavement that are connected to a control box make up a loop detector. A signal with a frequency between 10 kHz and 200 kHz has the potential to stimulate the loop. Together with the control box, this loop makes up an inductive component. The loop’s inductance decreases as a moving object drives over or stops on it—the control box signals detection as a result. Inductive loop detectors have the benefits of having a well-defined detection zone and generally being reliable.
The light source and the detector are the two main parts of photoelectric devices. These could be placed across from each other or in the same location. When situated opposite one another, the detector is triggered if something blocks the light source’s illumination. When placed together, the detector is activated when light from the light source is reflected off of a target and back onto the detector.
9: Passive acoustic detectors array:
The passive acoustic array is another kind of vehicle detector. To track a vehicle’s progress, a microphone array may be utilized. The signals from the array’s microphones are analyzed and correlated with gathering information about vehicle passage. The array’s directionality and field of detection are determined by its design. Likely, some of the methods or designs used by the sophisticated microphone arrays that video-conferencing companies have been developing for their systems could be adapted to traffic applications.
10: Spread-spectrum wideband radar:
These sensors are significant due to their low cost and incredibly precise range discrimination. Additionally, it can penetrate a wide range of materials, including concrete. It has a range of 20 feet and is expected to cost considerably less than $10 per sensor when produced in large quantities. They have a very clearly defined detection field due to their precise range of discrimination. They might develop into a less expensive alternative to magnetometer probes. Future traffic control systems can benefit from additional information their capacity to detect range provides.
New applications for vehicle identification algorithms have been made possible by the advancement of computer vision techniques and the subsequent accessibility of video image data. AI automotive services. Companies can now use highly personalized solutions with advanced Machine Learning capabilities with the help of artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms.